Exercise A Herbs and Spices

There is no real botanical distinction between herbs and spiccs. Herbs are usually described as aromatic leaves or seeds from plants native to temperate regions, while spiccs arc various parts of plants diat are native to tropical areas. Thus, the distinction between herbs and spices is only a geographic one. In common usage, the terms are often interchangeable. We may speak of spicy mustard, yet mustard plants are technically herbs native to temperate areas. YVc can only speculate as to how...

Exercise A The Ins and Outs of C

The common statement Animals respire, plants photo-synthesize' is only partially correct. Although it is true that plants are capable of producing their own organic compounds through the process of photosynthesis, plants are so versatile that they can also respire just like animals. Photosynthesis is a complex scries of reactions involving the capture of light energy, conversion to chemical energy, and finally the synthesis of carbohydrates. It is one of the main biosvnthetic processes by which...

Questions For Review And Discussion

In what way does the California blackworm (Lum-briculus variegatus) make an ideal experimental animal for testing bioactivc drugs 2. Why have so many plants that have been identified as toxic been used medicinally What is the expected effect of a stimulant upon pulse rate Of a depressant 4. Why is it important to test drugs or extracts at various concentrations 5. Why is it important to measure the pulse rate of a worm in spring water

Field Trip to a Health Food Store

Health food stores typically sell many items besides healthy'1 foods. A visit to such a shop can underscore many concepts from this course. .Although it would be easy to spend several hours roaming around the store-just looking at the produce and exotic food items available, this field trip has definite objectives. Consider this exercise a scavenger hunt. You will be looking for various items in certain categories. For each of the categories, you will list the items found, other information...

Step Designing an Experiment to Test the Hypothesis

Before proceeding, you must decide what type of evidence or data is needed to test your hypothesis. In some cases, you can answer your question by making more observations of the phenomenon. For example, you may observe the behavior of butterflies as they pollinate flowers. In other cases, you may find that conducting an experiment in which you manipulate one part of the environment is the best way to answer your question. The nature of the investigation should be matched to the question and...

Additional Resources

Committee on Dietary Reference Intakes. 1997. Dietary reference intakes for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D. and fluoride. Washington, D.C. National Academy Press. Committee on Dietary Rcfcrencc Intakes. 1998. Dietary rcfcrencc intakes for thiaminef riboflavin, niacin. B& folate, BJ2> pantothenic acid. bio tin, and choline. Washington, D.C. National Academy Press. I-evetin, F., and K. McMahon. 1999. Plants and society, 2d ed. New York McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Morholt, F., and...

Further influenced by the ability of seeds to land in suit

Able habitats and to germinate there. Larger seeds often have greater energy reserves for seed survival and germination. However, their increased mass often decreases the dispersal distance. Reproductive success thus depends on the interaction of all the physical and biological factors, and numerous successful strategies have evolved. Measurement dcviccs (e.g., mctcrsticks, stopwatch, balance, anemometer, ere.) Other aids (e.g ladders, fans, staircase, etc.) Variety of wind-dispersed seeds and...

Terms To Know

Alkaloids 227 annelid 227 bioactivc drugs 227 cardioactive glycoside 227 closed circulatory system 227 cyanogcnic glycosides 227 lactones 227 neurotransmitters 227 oligochactcs 227 saponins 227 setae 227 terpenes 227 excess w ater with a kimwipe. Do not add a coverslip. Ix-t the worm crawl around and adjust to its new surroundings for a couple of minutes. 5. Place the observation chamber under the scanning 4 x objective) or low power 10 x objective of the compound light microscope. Use the...

Laboratory Topic Fleshy Fruits And Flying Seeds

EXERCISE A DIVERSITY OF FLESHY FRUITS It may be difficult to do all three exercises for Laboratory Topic 7 in one lab period unless the students arc very efficient. Any fruits can be used for this exercise, depending on what is available. Most examples of fleshy fruits can be found ar a local supermarket. The dry fruits can be collect cd from trees, shrubs, and herbs in the area, and stored until needed. EXERCISE B EDIBLE FLESHY FRUITS OF COMMERCE Take advantage of any exotic or unusual fruits...

Exercise B The Botany Of Baking

Specialty flours arc available at most supermarkets. Often these flours arc located apart from the normal baking goods in a scction devoted to specialty' foods, especially foods lor special diets. Some of the available flours, such as buckwheat or soy, arc not from cereal grains. Most of the specialty Hours typically arc not used to make bread. The flours mav be added to wheat flour to change flavor or nutrition, but arc seldom used alone. The dough and breads from these flours yield some...

Procedure for Exercise A

Food diary For seven days, keep a complete record of all the food and drink you consume (except water). Record the amount and types of items you eat on worksheet 10-1 at the end of this laboratory topic. You will use this data for both Exercise A and Exercise B. 2. Your Piece of the Planet- ' Estimate the land area needed to produce your food At the end of the week, assign the food you ate to the subcategories (column 1) on worksheet 10-2. Convert all your data to kilocalories. Note. The...

Other Activities

For Exercise A, your instructor may also have onion root dps available for preparing chromosome squashes. Follow the same procedure as for the VUta faba roots. 2. For Exercise C on cloning herbs, try rooting some of the cuttings in water. Some plants readily root in water, while others do not. Plants rooted in water should be transferred to a porting mixture as soon as the roots are visible. WORKSHEET 2-1 EXERCISE B CLONES FROM TISSUE CULTURE 4. How many plandets developed per culture WORKSHEET...

Background

F.very culture has evolved a lime-tested tradition of herbal remedies. Some have been w ritten down and preserved, as in the Ebers Papyrus from the classical Egyptian period or the Radiantis Manuscript, a repository of Aztec botanical cures. Hippocrates, the Greek scholar credited with being the father of Western medicine, wrote extensively on plants thai heal. In fact, most of the earliest physicians were also botanists because they were expected to prepare their own medications directly from...

On The Web

Cal Photos, Berkeley Digital library Project http dlp.CS. Berkeley. ED U photos International Legume Database & Information Service http www.ildis.org Wayne's word A Newsletter of Natural History Trivia Bloomficld, L. A. 2000. Cleaning agents. Scientific American 282(40) 108-9. Bloomficld, L. A. 2000. Cleaning agents. Scientific American 282(40) 108-9. Now that you know the characteristics of the legume flower, fruit, and seed, make a list of legumes you find in a nearby park, garden center,...

Exercise D The Starchy Staples

Make sure the potato chips you bring in are not made from processed potatoes, as these will not show the ring of vascular bundles common to dicot stems. 2. Bring in examples of the four major varieties of white potato grown in the United States. Round white include Kennebcc and Katahadin. Examples of russets arc Idahos and Russet Burbank. Round red includes Red La Soda and Norland. A popular long white is white rose. 3. When the sweet potato is halved, find the visible-lighter ring of tissue...

Materials Needed for Exercise A

Parts Plants That Used For Food

Cellulose acctate or diluted clear nail polish (sec Instructors' Notes at the end of this manual for preparation) Food produced and sent to other parts of plant Food converted to energy to be used by all parts of plant Food produced and sent to other parts of plant Food converted to energy to be used by all parts of plant FIGURE 5.1 COMPARISON OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND RESPIRATION IN PLANTS. Dry peas, beans, or other seeds Gas sampling botdc, 250 ml Glass plate Peas, beans, or other seeds soaked...

Exercise B How Balanced is Your Diet

The food we cat provides us with energy, water, and molecules for growth, maintenance, and repair. The role of food as a source of energy was explored in Exercise A. In this exercise, we will examine the molecules needed for proper health. These can be classified as macronurrients, if needed in large amounts, or micronutricnts, if needed in small yet essential quantities. The macronutricnts are organic chemicals that includc carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. These compounds, especially the...

Exercise C Storage Organs

Bulbs include daffodils, tulips, onions, and amarvl-lis. Lily bulbs lack the outer brown scales. Garlic cloves arc bulbcrs. 2. Corms include elephant's ears, gladiolus, crocus, water chestnuts, and die tiny corms of the wildflowcr known as spring beauty (Clayronia rirgmica). 3. Rhizomes includc canna, iris, lily-of-the-vallcy, shamrock (Oxalis brasiliensis) and ginger. 4. Tubers include caladium, white potato, and Jerusalem artichoke Helianthus tuberosum). 5. Taproots include Carrot, parsnip,...

Procedure for Exercise B

Examine the bulk samples of materials made from several plant fibers. Evaluate the texture of these fabrics, and enter a brief description in worksheet 3-1 at the end of this laboratory topic. 2. Obtain a tiny sample of each of diese fabrics or rope, and place it on a microscope slide. Add a drop of phloroglucinol-HCI stain. With two dissecting needles, shred the material. Allow the material to sit in the stain for several minutes then add a coverslip and examine under the microscope. Remember...

Exercise A Making Plastic

Ch2ohch2oh Structure

Starch is classified as a polymer, a large molecular compound composed of many smaller units, or monomers. In the case of starch, the monomer is glucose, which forms a ring on itself. Knzymes link the glucose molecules together through a condensation reaction in which a molecule of water is created from the atoms given off as the glucose molecules bond. How the glucose is put together determines the particular type of starch. Amy-lose is composed of unbranchcd chains of glucose rings, numbering...

Learning Objectives

Seed Coat And Fruit Wall

After completing this laboratory topic, students should be able to 1. Rccognizc the unique features of a typical grass plant and understand how these vegetative and reproductive features arc exploited by humans. 2. Relate the botanical source with the chemical properties of flour. 3. Relate rhc evolution of wheat with the chemical properties of quality bread. 4 Understand how gluten proteins affcct rhc elasticity of bread dough and the ability of bread to rise. 5. Relate pigments of blue corn...

Laboratory Topic Bioprospecting For Medicinal Plants

EXERCISE A INVESTIGATING HERBAL REMEDIES WITH THE SHRIMP BIOASSAY 1. Purchase live brine shrimp Anemia or cysts from Carolina Biological, Ward's, or the local aquarium store. If you choose, hatching brine shrimp is extremely easy. Using Instant Ocean also available from the same sources , prepare a 1.022 specific gravity salt-water solution approximately 9 tablespoons in a 1-gallon aquarium. Purchase an inexpensive Aquarium Systems Scatest Specific Gravity meter marine hydrometer from Ward's to...

Exercise B Starch Grains

Plant cells have several unique organelles see Laboratory Topic 1 . Within plant cclls arc the plastids, a family of membrane-bounded organelles. Two classes of this group are chloroplasts and chromoplasts. Chloroplasts arc the green, chlorophyll-containing organelles of photosynthesis chromoplasts store the pigments of red, yellow and orange that color may flowers and fruits. Another type of plastid is the Icucoplast, which is colorless. A lcucoplast that stores starch is an amyloplast The...

Exercise D Lather Up

One-hundrcd-pcrcent lye can be purchase inexpensively from the grocery store. It is sold as a drain opener. Red Devil is a common brand. 2. Palm oil can be purchased from Hast Indian or Middle Eastern food stores. It is also known as vegetable ghee. Coconut oil can be purchased from the same source, although it is often sold as a soap-making supply in hobby stores. If soybean oil is substituted for palm oil, stirring time will be about 30-40 minutes. 3. Food dyes cannot be used to color...

Laboratory Topic Algaefrom Diversity To Dessert

Cultures are available through most biological supply companies including Carolina Biological and Ward's. Thcv also have a limited selection of freshly collcctcd brown and red algae. Preserved materials, herbarium specimens, and prepared slides arc also available. 1. Irish moss CJmndrus erispus is available at stores thar sell supplies for making beer, smcc it is used for pre cipitating proteins in the wort. It is generally sold chopped up or tlaked in small bottles and is inexpensive. It is...

Procedure for Exercise C

Repeat Pipet

Label these 1 10, 1 100, 1 1,000, 1 10,000, and 1 100,000. Placc them in a test tube rack, and fill each tube with 9 ml of the 5 sugar solution. 2. Select two peppers from those available in lab. Using vinyl gloves, cut off and weigh out 5 g of one of the peppers. Place it in a moriar and add 5 ml of 95 ethanol. Using the pestle, grind tor several minutes. Transfer 1 ml of the solution into the tube marked 1 10. Cover and shake well. Transfer 1 ml into the tube marked 1...

Design

Laboratory Manual for Applied Botany has a flexible design. Each of the 18 topics is divided into multiple exercises from which the instructor can pick and choose. The organization of topics follows that of Plants and Society 2d cd. however, each laboratory topic is complete within itself and instructors may reorder them according to their courses. Most of the laboratory can be completed within a 2-3 hour laboratory period, although a few exercises require students to check back later for...

Exercise A Your Piece of the

All organisms function by using and processing energy. Energy enters the web of life via photosyndicsis, is stored in biomass, and is released by cellular respiration see Laboratory Topic 5 . As a living being, you arc dependent on a continual inflow of energy. Since humans arc not capablc of photosynthesis, we must get all our energy from the food we eat. Where did the energy in our food come from Ultimately it came from the sun. The objective of this excrcisc is for you to get a sense for...

Exercise A Roots To Anchor And Absorb

Germinate radish seedlings 3-4 days prior to lab to sec good root hairs. Keep in moist chambers sincc root hairs collapsc readily in the air. Quickly transfer several seedlings to pctri dishes lined with moistened filter paper for student examination. 2. Although carrots could be used instead of parsnips, the parsnip is preferable bccausc it is white and the stains show up much better. 3. I2KI turns blue-black in the presence of starch. To prepare I2KI stain, dissolve 20 g of K1 potassium...

Materials Needed for Exercise C

Leaves to demonstrate composition, venation, and arrangement Prepared slide of aloe Aloe leaf cross sccrion Prepared slide of privet Lijjnstrum leaf cross sect ion from both sides of the leaf Now that you know leaf anatomy, what soft tissues specifically are you scraping off 4. You should now have a leaf skeleton that shows the venation pattern of the leaf. 5. If desired, stain with dyes by immersing the leaf in a dye solution. 6. Place the leaf between two pieces of newspaper, add a heavy book...

Watermelon

Types Botony Fruits

B rry Moro or loss lloshy throughout and not as pepo or hesperidium Pericarps dividod into thin, skin-liko exocarp thick, lloshy mesocarp and hard, stony ondocarp Drupe Pericarp with fleshy mesocarp and stony or hard ondocarp usually single seod Legumo Fruit ot one carpol splits atong two seams membor ot Fabacoao Folllclo Fruit of ono carpel splits along ono soam Fruit splits opon when ripo contains nurnorouB soods Capsule Fruit o 2 or moro fusod carpels splits in a variety ot ways Sillquo...

Worksheet Exercise C Transpiration

COMPARING TRANSPIRATION AND EVAPORATION What did you observe from the demonstration of the plant and sponge under bell jars What can you conclude about the role of water evaporation and transpiration 2. DETECTING WATER LOSS TRANSPIRATION Record the time required to turn the cobalt chloride strip from blue to pink. Which surface of the leaf had the fastest transpiration rate, upper or lower How long did it take your control strip suspended in the air to turn pink Record the number of stomata...

Exercise B The Nuts And Bolts Of Stem Anatomy

The stainless steel nut-and-bolt microtome is from Dickcy 1995 . The diameter size of the nut is X-in., which makes a 4-in. diameter well. The bolt is 1 -Y in. long. These can be purchased from the local hardware store. 2. For the embedding medium, we recommend Paraplasm a mix of paraffin and plast ic polymers available from Carolina Biological, but you can use paraffin wax. Melt before class rime. 3. Most of the paraffin can be removed from the nuts and bolts by scraping with a dissccting...

Science as a Process

Scicncc is more than a mere collection of facts. Science is a process of acquiring new knowledge. Science is a systematic way of discovering new explanations based on empirical evidence about the natural world. Science is a way of knowing. Science is also a social endeavor. To the general public, science is often misunderstood. A typical image of a scientist is some geek in a lab coat surround by beakers spewing chemicals. Science is much more. Science is a process for understanding the inner...

Procedure for Exercise D

Zone Inhibition Petri Dish Diagram

Peel 3 or 4 cloves of fresh garlic F . Cut off the attachment scar on the bottom. 2. Weigh out 10 g of garlic. Surface sterilize by dipping in 15 bleach for 5 scconds and rinsing in distilled water. 3. Using a sterile mortar and pestle, thoroughly grind the garlic in 10 ml of sterile distilled water. The results should be a pulpy slurry with no chunks. Transfer die slurry to an empty pctri dish. Label the petri dish A. This will be your full-strength sample. 4. Weigh out 1 g of the...

Exercise A Diversity of Fleshy Fruits

Regions Fleshy Fruits

Rotanically, a fruit is a ripened ovary and its contents. Within the fruit arc seeds. The embryo of the next generation lies within the seed. Most botanists restrict the term fruit to the flowering plants and do not refer to the mature female reproductive structures of gym-nosperms e.g., pine cones as fruits. However, the botanical definition does not always follow the common usage. To the average consumer, a fruit is typically sweet and would most likclv be eaten as a snack or dessert. To that...

Exercise D Antibiotic Activity Of Secondary Products In Garlic

To prepare the roasted garlic, separate the clovcs from a head of garlic, but do not peel. Wrap the clovcs in foil and bake for SO minutes at 150 C about 300 F . 2. Review sterile technique with the students. 3. Use actively growing cultures about 18 hours old of E. colt and B. subtilis as the source of inoculum for the plates. Grow die cultures in LB broth at 37 C. 4. Demonstrate to the class how to inoculate the plates so that cultures will develop a solid lawn of the test organisms....

Laboratory Topic I Cells Of Crystal And Color

EXERCISE A PLANT CELLS WITHOUT WALLS 1. Buffer solution is approximately 13 mannitol or 0.625 M mannitol FW 182.2 . Prepare by dissolving 56.94 g of mannitol and add distilled water to bring to tinal volume of 500 ml. Adjust the pH to 6-7 by adding drops of 0.1 N NaOH. Distribute 10 ml of buffer solution to each student team. 2. For each student group, measure out 0.1 g of pecti-nase and 0.2 g of ccllulysin. These should be added to 10 ml of buffer solution immediately' before use to make an...

Exercise B Common Types of Wood

Types Wood Parenchyma

The beauty and strength of wood lies in the orientation of its cclls and tissues. The vessels, trachcids, and fibers are oriented along the long axis, w hile the rays of parenchyma arc oriented along the radius. Annual growth rings arc composed of alternating concentric layers of softer earlywood and denser late wood. When combined, all these cclls help make wood an immensely strong material for its weight. That is why wood is an excellent material for constructing buildings, making furniture,...

Additional Activities

With the help of your instructor, obtain and investigate other plant derived drugs and extracts to test on the blackworm. WORKSHEET 17-1 EXERCISE A COMPARISON OF PULSE RATES BPM I. To see general trends, make a bar graph to show the changes before and after in pulse rate as a function of concentration. WORKSHEET 17-1 EXERCISE A COMPARISON OF PULSE RATES BPM OF THE CALIFORNIA BLACKWORM continued 2. What conclusions can be drawn about the effects of the bioactive drugs tested upon pulse rate in...

Exercise A Investigating Herbal Remedies With the Shrimp Bioassay

Brine Shrimp Bioassay

A bioassay uses a living organism to test the toxicity of chemicals. One of the earliest bioassays was employed by miners who worked in underground coal mines. One by-product of coal mining is the release of methane, a deadly, odorless gas Caged canaries would accompany the miners on their journey deep into the earth to act as a bioassay for the presence of methane. If the birds died, methane concentrations in die mine were at dangerous levels. a warning that the miners should evacuate. You...

Exercise A The Blackworm Model to Test Bioactive Drugs

How Check Pulsation Rate Blackworm

To test the actions of bioactive drugs derived from plants, you will work with a segmented worm, or annelid. In dicsc worms, the body is organized into repeated rings or segments. Annelids can be found in terrestrial, freshwater, and marine environments. There are three classes of annelids, based on the relative number of bristles, or setae on the body wall. You will be studying a spccics within the oligochaetes, annelids that have few bristles in this case, only four per segment. Our...

Exercise A Fungal Diversity

Asexual Spores Ascomycota

Fungus-like organisms occur in both the Kingdom Protista and the Kingdom Fungi. In this lab, wc will look at several groups of organisms in rhe Kingdom Fungi. The Division Zvgomycota includes a large group of fungi that have very simple structures. There are rwo characteristic reproductive structures in this group. The asexual reproductive structure is the sporangium, within which asexual spores arc produced. The sporangium pi. sporangia develops on a specialized hvpha called a sporangiophore...

Exercise B Clones From Tissue Culture

It is important to stress sterile technique, since the cultures can casilv become contaminated. You should demonstrate how to sterilize instruments by dipping in alcohol and passing through a flame. Explain the safety precautions ncccssary when using alcohol near an open flame. If a laminar flow hood is available, have the students use it. This will dramatically cut down on the contamination. If not, make sure the students clear their lab benches and wipe the counters down with 70 ethanol....

Laboratory Topic The Fungus Among Us

We have suggested that students do not open the pctri dishes containing actively growing cultures of Rbizopus Pcnieillium, and Aspergillus, since many students have allergies and many fungal spores are common allergens. 2. The following technique will stain endomycorrhizal fungi in roots. The fungus will stain deep blue, while the root cells arc pale blue or unstained. You can prcstain the roots and have the students mount the roots on slides and look for VA mycorrhizac, or you can have the...

Materials Needed for Exercise

Iodine Test Starch

FIGURE 13.2 STARCH GRAINS OF A BANANA B CROWN OF THORNS. AND C POTATO. FIGURE 13.2 STARCH GRAINS OF A BANANA B CROWN OF THORNS. AND C POTATO. Dropper bottle of iodine solution IjKI Plants to examine tor leucoplasts and starch grains e.g., white potato, crown of thorns, banana- Starch of arrowroot, potato, corn, ctc. 1. Place a drop of distilled water on the center of a glass slide. Using a dissecting needle, obtain a very small sample of the starchy flesh of a banana and put this sample in the...

Exercise B Economic Fibers

Kapok Cell

Botanically, the term fiber describes one type of sclc-renchyma cell, but commercially the term has a much broader definition and includes other plant ccll types as well as animal and synthetic sources of fabrics. Since prehistoric times, plants have been used as a source of material for textiles and cordage. Archacological evidence indicates the Swiss Like dwellers used linen fabric 10,000 years ago. Similar evidence for the use of cotton has been discovered in excavations in coastal Peru....

Worksheet I I Exercise A A Typical Grass Plant

Sketch the grass plant here to illustrate all its unique vegetative and reproductive features. 2. What characteristics of the grass plant allow for support and flexibility 3. What characteristics of a grass help the plant respond to herbivory 4. What characteristics of a grass are well suited to plants living in disturbed habitats, such as plowed fields or urban settings WORKSHEET I 1-2 EXERCISE B THE BOTANY OF BAKING

Worksheet Exercise B Airborne Fungi

Can you tell any differences between the appearance of the fungi from the outdoor samples and the indoor samples 2. Were there differences at different times of the day 3. Would you say that the indoor locations you selected were contaminated 4. The spores that landed on the culture plate produced colonies using nutrients available in the medium. In the natural environment, what might these fungi be growing on

Exercise A Plant Tissues

Ground tissues constitute the majority of nonwoody plant organs. They arc diverse in size and shape, and dicy perform a variety of functions. The diree ground tissues are parenchyma, collcnchyma, and sclerenchyrma tig. 3.1 . Of diese, parenchyma shows the greatest diversity' in form and function. Parenchyma consists of thin-walled, living cclls that occur in different regions of the plant body. Parenchyma cells can be almost any size or shape however, thev are frequently described as a 14-sidcd...

Worksheet Exercise A Your Piece Of The

Instructions for computing energy intake by food types Use the data reported on worksheet 10-1 to complete the chart on the following page. Column I Assign each food item to a food subcategory. The subcategories relate to the relative amount of energy in edible food produced per square meter of cropland or ocean surface yield . You may need to split the energy kcal for a specific food into more than one subcategory. For example, most salad dressing can be divided about half and half between...

Exercise A Flower Structure

Structure Flower And Fruit

Flowers arc modified branches bearing four sets of floral organs. The tloral organs arc sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels. These four flower parts are in whorls on the receptacle, the expanded top of the flower stalk, or pedicel fig. 6.1 . The sepals are the outermost floral organs. They are leaflike structures that cover the unopened flower bud. In most flowers, the sepals arc green and photosynthetic. The petals make lip the next whorl of flower parts. Petals are often brighdy colored and...

Exercise B Pollen Morphology

1 Only a limited number of pollen slides arc available commercially from biological supply houses. For the pollen in this exercise, you w ill need to make the slides yourself. The pollen can be collected from the field if you plan ahead, but it may be easier to order the pollen from a lab that prepares extracts for allergy injections. Four of til esc pollen types will also be needed to make slides for lixercisc C. Greer Laboratories. Inc. P.O. Box 800, Lenoir, N 28f gt 45 828-754-5327 stocks a...

Worksheet Exercise C Algae As Indicators Of Water Pollution

Palmer Algal Pollution Score for Water Sample from Palmer Algal Pollution Score for Water Sample from Correction if Sample Was Concentrated Calculate the density number o' individuals per ml from Equation 1 in the procedure lot Exercise C. Calculate the density number o' individuals per ml from Equation 1 in the procedure lot Exercise C.

Worksheet Exercise C Transpiration continued

What are your experimental units What are your controls How many replicates of both experimental variables and controls are you planning to get reasonable results Report your results. You should create your own summary tables or graphs. Interpret your results. What does it all mean What additional questions do your results suggest

Lab Section Number

Plant Ultrastructure

WORKSHEET I-I EXERCISE A PLANT CELLS WITHOUT WALLS I. What is the purpose of cellulase in the protoplast exercise Pectinase 2. Why is it necessary to be gentle with protoplasts 3. At one time it was thought that vegans, those whose diet is based solely on plants, would not get sufficient quantities of calcium. After completing these laboratory exercises, what do you think of that assumption Why WORKSHEET 1-2 EXERCISE C PLANT ULTRASTRUCTURE 4. Label the structures of a plant cell as seen in a...

Exercise C Paleoecology The Use of Pollen to Study Past Vegetation

The study of fossil pollen is one of the main methods used by palcobotanists and paleoecologists in reconstructing what an environment may have been like thousands of years ago. Because the chemical composition of the exinc makes it resistant to decay, the pollen is preserved for thousands even millions of years in various geological deposits. Studying the pollen in the sediment can help us understand the vegetarional history of an area. Knowledge of the types of plants can also give us ideas...