Antioxidant

Cole crops Broccoli cauliflower cabbage and company

In addition to the familiar broccoli varieties, such as Premium Crop and Packman, consider including some broccoli raab and rapini, which have smaller stems and a stronger flavor. Try one of the new orange, purple, or green cauliflowers, which contain more vitamins and antioxidants than regular white varieties. Some new cabbage varieties produce smaller heads that are easier to use and store. Consider including savoy, red, and Chinese cabbages too. Kale is considered to be one of the most nutritious vegetables, so be sure to include a few varieties. Other cole crops to try include Brussels sprouts, kohlrabi, and collards.

Brassicas As Functional Foods

Sinolates (see Chapter 8) that are hydrolysed into isothiocyanates by the action of myrosinase enzymes when plant cells are damaged by chewing. Isothiocyanates are well recognized as potent inducers of mammalian detoxication (phase 2) and antioxidant enzyme activity that protects against tumorigenesis when tested in rodents suffering from mammary, stomach and prostrate tumour models. Sulphoraphane (4-methylsulphinylbutyl isothio-cyanate) derived from broccoli (calabrese) (B. oleracea var. italica) is especially effective against tumorigenesis, in reducing hypertensive stress and curing Helicobacter pylori infections (Fahey et al., 1997, 2002). Dietary intake of isothiocyanates can be satisfied by eating a range of Brassica green vegetables and from broccoli seed and sprouts. Plant breeding programmes aiming to increase isothiocyanate contents in hybrid Brassica lines are described by Mithen et al. (2003) in the UK and by Abercrombie et al. (2005). Increasing the isothiocyanate content...

Plants For Food Pharmacy

Polyploids Tomato

In addition to being one of the world's favorite foods, the tomato contains Lycopene, a natural carotenoid that is responsible for its red color. Lycopenes and other antioxidants can help prevent cellular damage and abnormal cellular growth. This was my first harvest of the year (on May 15th ) from my new backyard greenhouse that I'll show you how to build later on. In addition to being one of the world's favorite foods, the tomato contains Lycopene, a natural carotenoid that is responsible for its red color. Lycopenes and other antioxidants can help prevent cellular damage and abnormal cellular growth. This was my first harvest of the year (on May 15th ) from my new backyard greenhouse that I'll show you how to build later on.

Examples of the Intragenic Modification in Potato

Ramus Dorsalis Plexus

A third application of intragenic potato modification is directed towards enhancing the crop's antioxidant potential. Until recently, this quality trait was not considered in potato breeding programs. New initiatives to produce colored high-antioxidant potatoes still need to overcome many issues associated with the genetic complexity that underlies antioxidant product formation. For instance, several powerful flavo-nols such as kaempferol and quercetin are mainly produced in the anthers, where they support the production of viable pollen (Guyon et al. 2000). It is difficult to divert the underlying biosynthetic pathway to tubers by simply relying on random recombination processes. However, recent experiments have shown that this pathway can be activated in tubers through overexpression of the transcription factor gene StMtf1M (Rommens et al. 2008b). The subsequent down-regulation of flavo-noid-3',5'-hydroxylase gene expression limited the formation of anthocyanins and, instead,...

Starch and Cellulose Starch

Cumarat Aus Cinnamat

The ingredients for cosmetic creams, lotions, powder, perfumes, lipstick or makeup come from a variety of sources, for example antioxidants, alcohol, oil and also polymers. Polymers serve in hair-setting products, as binders in skin creams and to keep sunscreens from washing off. One example is a-D-glucosylglycerol (a-GG), which is used as an anti-aging agent and moisture-regulating compound (Da Costa et al. 1998). a-GG can be produced by chemical as well as by enzymatic methods and was naturally found in microorganisms as a compatible solute for providing some protection against stresses due to high salt concentrations, heat and UV radiation. It is also useful as an alternative sweetener in food stuffs, because of its low caloric value. The microbial synthesis of a-GG is presently not a mature process, because it does not allow the production of a-GG as a bulk chemical. The achievable concentrations are very low and also the productivity of three days is not advantageous for...

Intragenic Tomato S esculentum Concentrating the Quality Potential of Tomato into its Fruit

Tomato is one of the most important horticultultural crops and represents an important source of vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. Intragenic methods for tomato were first applied to redesign Calgene's FlavrSavr . The transgenic crop contained an extended Agrobacterium T-DNA region with an extra copy of the polygalacturonidase (Pg) gene inserted in the antisense orientation between the 35S promoter of cauliflower mosaic virus and the terminator of the Agrobacterium tml gene. It also carried a bacterial expression cassette for the neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) gene. Despite its extended shelf life, opposition from nongovernmental organizations resulted in an eventual withdrawal of FlavrSavr tomatoes from the market. Future applications may support efforts to unleash the full quality potential of tomato. For instance, tomato plants evolved to produce high levels of antioxidant flavonols in anthers and pollen only. Replacement of the promoter of the chalcone isomerase (Chi)...

Vitamins

Whereas vitamin A is a single compound, eight tocochromanols belong to the vitamin E family that differ in their methylation pattern of the polar head group and the saturation of the prenyl tail of the amphiphilic antioxidant. Due to the specificity of the retrieval system, a-tocopherol has the highest vitamin E activity in humans. The pathway of tocochromanol biosynthesis in plants has been characterized and the involved genes have been cloned (DellaPenna and Last 2006 DellaPenna and Pogson 2006). Work on transgenic plants has shown that the levels of vitamin E