Vegetable Light Needs

Partial Sun

Full Sun

Beets

Beans

Carrots

Broccoli

Cauliflower

Brussel sprouts

Chard

Cabbage

Lettuce

Corn

Onions

Eggplant

Parsley

Muskmelons

Peas

Peppers

Radishes

Pumpkins

Spinach

Squash, Summer

Squash, Winter

Tomatoes

Hydroponic Tomato SpacingHydroponic Tomato Spacing
Figure 6.16

Hotkaps

Commercial paper protectors come in a number of shapes and sizes: Standard 'Hotcaps'. King-sized hotkaps', tlotents'and Super Hotents',

Source: Department of Vegetable Crops, Universith of California, Davis

Use following table to plan your seeding optimum yield and quality:-

SEED CONVERSIONS AND RECOMMENDED PLANT SPACING

Crop

Beans, bu$h Beans, pole Beans, lima Beets Broccoli

Brussels sprouts

Cabbage

Carrots

Cauliflower

Swiss Chard

Corn

Cucumbers

Endive

Lettuce

Melons

Okra

Onion, Dry bulb

Parsnip

Peas

Pepper

Pumpkin

Radish

Spinach

Squash, Summer Squash, Winter Tomato Turnip Watermelon

Approx, per gram

60 320 300 300 300 350 40

35 330 8800 35

330 420

70 100

380 460

No. of Seed per ounce

100 100 20-70 1,600 9,000 8,500 8,500 2,300 10.000 1,200 100-200 1,000 25,000 25,000 1.000 5,000 9,500 12,000 2,000 4,500 100 2,000 2,800 100 400 11,000 13,000 200-300

Wallo' Water

The Wallo' Water enables you to start tomatoes, eggplants, squash or other warm-weather vegetables six to eight weeks earlier without fear of freezing. During the day, the water held between the plastic layers absorbs heat, moderating the temperature inside the tepee. As the water cools at night, it releases up to 900,000 calories of heat to warm plants. Wallo' Water protects vegetables from outside temperatures as low as 10° F.

TERRACOPLA, IMC.

2365 South Main

Salt Lake City, UT 84115

Wallo' Water

The Wallo' Water enables you to start tomatoes, eggplants, squash or other warm-weather vegetables six to eight weeks earlier without fear of freezing. During the day, the water held between the plastic layers absorbs heat, moderating the temperature inside the tepee. As the water cools at night, it releases up to 900,000 calories of heat to warm plants. Wallo' Water protects vegetables from outside temperatures as low as 10° F.

TERRACOPLA, IMC.

2365 South Main

Salt Lake City, UT 84115

with glass on the outside and plastic inside. This insulates better, and the glass screens out ultraviolet rays that damage plastic. What's more, the plastic protects the bed if the glass is broken.

In areas with cold winters, you need to insulate cold frames. We line them with two-inch thick foam sheets because they are easy to cut and handle. Since foam deteriorates with exposure to water and sunlight, paint exposed surfaces with a white latex paint. The frame should be as tight as you can make it. Fill the gaps, corners, seams and other joints with silicone caulking compound. Make sure you seal air spaces around glass or plastic glazing panels.

In really cold climates, you can add a two-inch thick foam panel to the inside of the lid. For large cold frames, glue the foam to the back of half-inch plywood, and cut to fit the inside of the lid. Put the panel inside the lid at night to insulate your plants from the cold, and remove it during the day to allow sunlight to enter.

Ventilation is vital. Direct sun can overheat your cold frame. Waste gases may also increase to harmful levels, and carbon dioxide levels can decrease, slowing plant growth. Humidity builds inside the frame and condensation inside the box encourages mildew, fungus and bacterial diseases.

On warm or sunny days, open the top of the frame to allow air to circulate. Be careful, though, if it is extremely cold outside—exposing your vegetables to prolonged cold is harmful. The best way to overcome this problem is to buy automatic vent controllers (about $25), the kind used for greenhouse ventilation panels; they are available from a number of catalog seed firms. (See Figure 13.01, Chapter 13.) These vent controllers open automatically when the atmosphere in the frame becomes too hot, and close when the temperature lowers.

If overheating is a consistent problem, place cheesecloth or burlap over the top or paint the glazing white.

You may want to consider buying a ready-made cold frame. A new design from Austria has a peaked roof with four hinged top panels. The top and side panels are made of strong weatherproof polycarbonate plastic. The lid is double-glazed. You can add units to make the frame bigger as your garden grows.

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